Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Cardiac Disease

Dimitrios Velissaris, Nicholas Zareifopoulos, Ioanna Koniari, Vasilios Karamouzos, Dimitris Bousis, Andreas Gerakaris, Christina Platanaki, Nicholas Kounis


This review summarizes the published literature referring to the use and validity of the biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) when used for the assessment of patients with cardiac diseases. It is measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plasma samples. In cardiology a cut-off value range of 3.5 - 4.5 ng/mL has been commonly utilized. Different cut-off values may be applied based on the measuring kit used, the patient population and the clinical setting. A PubMed/Medline search was conducted aiming to identify all publications relevant to the use of suPAR in patients with cardiac diseases. A total of 39 studies were included in this review. suPAR as a marker of inflammation has been used more extensively in recent years, alone or in combination with other biomarkers of inflammation and cardiac pathology in the assessment of patients with acute and chronic cardiac diseases. suPAR is closely related to the pathophysiology of cardiac disease, and a number of publications encourages its use as a valuable biomarker in the assessment of patients presenting to the cardiology service. It may be most valuable in the risk assessment of patients with acute coronary syndromes and congestive heart failure, as suPAR elevation may be an independent predictor of mortality in these conditions. In conclusion, among several biomarkers used for clinical entities with underlying inflammatory pathophysiology including cardiac diseases, suPAR is a novel attractive index for the prognostic risk stratification of cardiac patients. More research is warranted to confirm its diagnostic and prognostic validity, alone or combined with other cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers.

J Clin Med Res. 2021;13(3):133-142


Acute coronary syndromes; Biomarker; Cardiac disease; Coronary artery disease; Congestive heart failure; Inflammation; Ischemic heart disease; Myocardial infarction

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