Does Accidental Overcorrection of Symptomatic Hyponatremia in Chronic Heart Failure Require Specific Therapeutic Adjustments for Preventing Central Pontine Myelinolysis?

Renato De Vecchis, Michel Noutsias, Carmelina Ariano, Arturo Cesaro, Carmela Cioppa, Anna Giasi, Nicola Maurea

Abstract


This review aims at summarizing essential aspects of epidemiology and pathophysiology of hyponatremia in chronic heart failure (CHF), to set the ground for a practical as well as evidence-based approach to treatment. As a guide through the discussion of the available evidence, a clinical case of hyponatremia associated with CHF is presented. For this case, the severe neurological signs at presentation justified an emergency treatment with hypertonic saline plus furosemide, as indicated. Subsequently, as the neurological emergency began to subside, the reversion of the trend toward hyponatremia overcorrection was realized by continuous infusion of hypotonic solutions, and administration of desmopressin, so as to prevent the very feared risk of an osmotic demyelination syndrome. This very disabling complication of the hyponatremia correction is then briefly outlined. Moreover, the possible advantages related to systematic correction of the hyponatremia that occurs in the course of CHF are mentioned. Additionally, the case of tolvaptan, a vasopressin receptor antagonist, is concisely presented in order to underline the different views that have led to different norms in Europe with respect to the USA or Japan as regards the use of this drug as a therapeutic resource against the hyponatremia.




J Clin Med Res. 2017;9(4):266-272
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr2933w


Keywords


Hyponatremia; Chronic heart failure; Therapy; Central pontine myelinolysis

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