Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II Versus Alpha-Fetoprotein in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

Abdallah Kobeissy, Nooraldin Merza, Alsadiq Al-Hillan, Safa Boujemaa, Zohaib Ahmed, Mohamad Nawras, Mohammed Albaaj, Dushyant Singh Dahiya, Yaseen Alastal, Mona Hassan


Background: Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) are promising tumor markers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Yet, their diagnostic performance differs throughout HCC investigations. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of PIVKA-II and AFP in the diagnosis of HCC.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies from eight databases, which were published up to February 2023, in order to compare the diagnostic performance of PIVKA-II and AFP for HCC. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of each biomarker.

Results: Fifty-three studies were identified. The pooled sensitivity (95% confidence interval (CI)) of PIVKA-II and AFP was 0.71 (0.70 - 0.72) and 0.64 (0.63 - 0.65), respectively in diagnosis of HCC, and the corresponding pooled specificity (95% CI) was 0.90 (0.89 - 0.90) and 0.87 (0.87 - 0.88), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PIVKA-II and AFP was 0.89 (0.88 - 0.90) and 0.78 (0.77 - 0.79), respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that PIVKA-II presented higher AUC values compared to AFP in terms of ethnic group (African, European, Asian, and American patients), etiology (mixed-type HCC, hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related, and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related) and sample size of cases (? 100 and > 100).

Conclusion: This study reveals that PIVKA-II is a promising biomarker for identifying and tracking HCC, exhibiting greater accuracy than AFP. Our findings indicate that PIVKA-II outperforms AFP in detecting HCC across diverse racial groups and sample sizes, as well as in cases of HBV-related, HCV-related, or mixed-etiology HCC.

J Clin Med Res. 2023;15(7):343-359


Vitamin K absence or antagonist-II; Alpha-fetoprotein; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, monthly, ISSN 1918-3003 (print), 1918-3011 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.