Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment Outcomes of Portal Vein Thrombosis: A Five-Year Hospital-Based Study From Qatar

Fahmi Yousef Khan, Elmukhtar Habas, Theeb Osama Sulaiman, Omnia A. Hamid, Ahmed Abdalhadi, Ahmad Khalaf, Mohammed S. Afana, Mohamed Yousif Ali, Yahia Zakaria Baniamer, Wael Kanjo, Bassam Muthanna, Raza Ali Akbar

Abstract


Background: There is a lack of robust epidemiological information on portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in Qatar. This study aimed to describe the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of PVT in patients with and without liver cirrhosis admitted to Hamad General Hospital.

Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Consecutive patients with PVT between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019 were included in this study.

Results: We included 363 cases representing 0.05% of all inpatients admitted to our hospital during the study period. Their mean age was 47.79 ± 14.48 years. There were 258 (71.1%) males and 105 (28.9%) females. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (160 (44.1%)), while splenomegaly was the most common presenting sign (158 (43.5%)). Liver cirrhosis was the most frequent risk factor for PVT (147 (40.5%)), while no risk factors were identified in 49 (13.5%) patients. Anticoagulant therapy was given to 171/207 (82.6%) patients with acute PVT and 19/156 (12.2%) patients with chronic PVT. The options used for anticoagulation treatment were: low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin alone, LMWH/unfractionated heparin followed by warfarin, and direct-acting oral anticoagulants (rivaroxaban). Out of the 262 patients in whom PVT recanalization was assessed, 43.8% of the cases had recanalization after anticoagulation treatment, while 12.6% of them had spontaneous recanalization without such therapy. A comparison between different anticoagulants used in this study showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of the three regimens used. The 30-day mortality was recorded for 71 patients (19.5%). The major risk factors for 30-day mortality were: age over 45 years, male sex, hepatic failure, malignancies, and bilirubin > 34 µmol/L.

Conclusion: PVT is a rare clinical entity in Qatar with liver cirrhosis being the most common risk factor. Early administration of anticoagulation therapy is associated with a significant recanalization, while age > 45 years, male sex, hepatic failure, malignancies, and bilirubin > 34 µmol/L are independent risk factors for 30-day mortality.




J Clin Med Res. 2022;14(5):209-217
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4718

Keywords


Portal vein; Thrombosis; Malignancy; Liver cirrhosis; Thrombophilia

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