Course of COVID-19 Based on Admission D-Dimer Levels and Its Influence on Thrombosis and Mortality

Vaasanthi Rajendran, Sowmya Gopalan, Priyadarshini Varadaraj, Viswanathan Pandurangan, Lakshmi Marappa, Aiswarya M. Nair, Sudha Madhavan, Rajkumar Mani, Emmanuel Bhaskar

Abstract


Background: Arterial and venous thrombosis is one of the major complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Studies have not assessed the difference in D-dimer levels between patients who develop thrombosis and those who do not.

Methods: Our study retrospectively assessed D-dimer levels in all virus confirmed hospitalized patients between May to September, 2020. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 with normal D-dimer of < 0.5 µg/mL, group 2 with elevation up to six folds, and group 3 with more than six-fold elevation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software 23.0.

Results: Seven hundred twenty patients (group1 (n = 414), group 2 (n = 284) and group 3 (n = 22)) were studied. Eight thrombotic events were observed. Events were two with stroke, two non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and one each of ST elevation myocardial infarction, superior mesenteric artery thrombosis with bowel gangrene, arteriovenous fistula thrombus and unstable angina. No significant difference (P = 0.11) was observed between median D-dimer levels among patients who developed thrombosis (1.34) and those who did not develop thrombosis (0.91). Twenty-nine patients died. The adjusted odds of death among those with a six-fold or higher elevation in D-dimer was 128.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.2 - 446.3, P < 0.001), while adjusted odds of developing clinical thrombosis was 1.96 (95% CI: 0.82 - 18.2, P = 0.18).

Conclusions: Our study observed a 1.1% in-hospital incidence of clinical thrombosis. While, a six-fold elevation in D-dimer was significantly associated with death; the same was not a strong predictor of thrombosis; an observation which implies that dose of anticoagulation should not be based on absolute D-dimer level.




J Clin Med Res. 2021;13(7):403-408
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4550

Keywords


COVID-19; D-dimer; Thrombosis; Death, Anticoagulation

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