Nutritional Intake by Meal Time Zone in Geriatric Patients Is Related to Nutritional Assessment Index

Yasuko Fukuda, Ryouko Kanazawa, Narumi Yao, Tomoka Ishida, Asuka Nakaoka, Momoko Tazuhara, Sayaka Yao, Saki Nakatani, Hiromu Nakajima, Masanobu Nakai


Background: The blood metabolome profiles depend on the meal intake time zone regardless of having the same meal. The serum albumin (Alb) level, which is important in managing geriatric patients with chronic diseases, is included in the metabolome analysis. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between Alb and the nutritional value of hospital meals consumed at breakfast, lunch, and dinner among geriatric patients. Chrononutrition was considered while drawing inferences.

Methods: We retrospectively surveyed 52 geriatric patients with chronic diseases (aged 79.7 ± 8.7 years) admitted at a small-scale hospital providing combined healthcare measures and oral nutritional support. The dietary intake per kilogram of body weight of nutritional components for breakfast, lunch, and dinner was individually expressed as the ratio to the whole daily food intake. The dietary pattern was determined by principal component analysis. We also conducted linear regression analysis, with Alb as the dependent variable, and age, sex, and grade assigned in this study as well as the first, second, and third principal components of the dietary patterns as the independent variables.

Results: Three principal components with an eigenvalue of > 1 were extracted. The second principal component was a significantly negative determinant factor for Alb (B = -0.108, P = 0.016). In patients with high Alb levels, the energy, protein, and fat ratios at lunch were positively correlated, while the energy and carbohydrate ratios at dinner were negatively correlated. Mealtimes were fixed.

Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the dietary pattern predominantly observed in patients with high Alb levels may be positively associated with Alb synthesis.

J Clin Med Res. 2021;13(6):334-342


Dietary pattern; Geriatric patient; Principal component analysis; Serum albumin; Meal time zone

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