Correlation of Immunoglobulins and Lymphocytes Levels With the Clinical and Microbiological Response of Septic Patients With Gram-Negative Bacteremia

Diamanto Aretha, Katerina Leukaditou, Fotini Fligou, Karolina Akinosoglou, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Alexandra Nikolopoulou, Stelios F. Assimakopoulos

Abstract


Background: Immunoglobulins (Igs) and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems play a critical role in a host’s response to sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible differences in the levels of Igs, white blood cells (WBCs), and T and B lymphocytes cells in relation to the microbiological and clinical responses of patients with sepsis or septic shock from carbapenem non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (CnS-GNB).

Methods: This pilot cohort study involved 24 hospitalized patients with sepsis or septic shock due to bacteremia from CnS-GNB. The microbiological and clinical responses of the patients were evaluated in relation to their blood levels of IgA, IgE, IgM and IgG, as well as WBCs and subpopulations of T and B cells upon sepsis diagnosis. A microbiological response was determined as clearance of bacteremia at 14 days of active antibiotic treatment for the isolated bacterial pathogen. Clinical response was defined as the resolution of all clinical and laboratory signs of infection and sepsis at 14 days of active antibiotic treatment for the isolated pathogen.

Results: From the 24 patients included in the study 18 (75%) and six patients (25%) presented and did not present microbiological response respectively, while 16 patients presented clinical response (64%) and eight patients (36%) did not have clinical response. The levels of the Igs did not show statistically significant differences between patients with sepsis from CnS-GNB bacteremia who exhibited microbiological or clinical response. There were also no statistically significant differences in the levels of WBCs and the subpopulations of T and B cells levels for these patients (P > 0.05). According to this pilot study, peripheral blood Igs and lymphocyte subpopulations levels do not affect the clinical and microbiological response of septic patients with bacteremia from CnS-GNB.

Conclusions: In patients with sepsis or septic shock from CnSGNB, there were no differences in the levels of Igs, circulating WBCs and T and B cells subpopulations between those with microbiological or clinical response and non-responders.




J Clin Med Res. 2021;13(1):64-72
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4409

Keywords


Sepsis; Immunoglobulins; Lymphocytes; Carbapenem non-susceptible; Gram-negative bacteria

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