Relationship Between Blood Pressure Levels on Admission and the Onset of Acute Pneumonia in Elderly Patients With Cerebral Hemorrhage

Taishi Ishisaka, Yuta Igarashi, Kumie Kodera, Tazuo Okuno, Takuro Morita, Taroh Himeno, Kazu Hamada, Hiroshi Yano, Toshihiro Higashikawa, Osamu Iritani, Kunimitsu Iwai, Shigeto Morimoto, Masashi Okuro

Abstract


Background: We have reported that hypertension on admission in elderly patients with acute cerebral infarction is an independent predictor for the development of acute pneumonia. However, the relationship between blood pressure on admission owing to cerebral hemorrhage and the development of pneumonia has not been fully investigated. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between blood pressure levels on admission and the development of pneumonia in elderly patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were in the acute phase.

Methods: Subjects consisted of 117 elderly patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were in the acute phase and were emergently admitted to the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University between 2005 and 2015 (59 males and 58 females, the mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 80 ± 8 years, and the range of 65 - 98 years). Blood pressure levels on admission were classified into the following four groups: normal blood pressure/mild hypertension group (systolic blood pressure of < 160 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of < 100 mm Hg), moderate hypertension group (systolic hypertension of 160 - 179 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of 100 - 109 mm Hg), severe hypertension group (systolic hypertension of 180 - 199 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of 110 - 119 mmHg), and serious hypertension group (systolic blood pressure of ? 200 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of ? 120 mm Hg). Between the two groups (group of patients with acute pneumonia and group of those with absence of pneumonia), age, sex, body mass index (BMI), history of stroke, history of heart disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, prehypertension, blood pressure on admission, Japan Coma Scale (JCS) on admission, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, bleeding sites, bleeding amount, and the presence or absence of centerline shift on brain computed tomography (CT) images were retrospectively evaluated. Furthermore, factors related to cerebral hemorrhage in the development of acute pneumonia in patients with cerebral hemorrhage were verified.

Results: Of the 117 patients, 30 (25.6%) had acute pneumonia. Age, sex, bleeding amount, midline shift, blood pressure classification on admission, JCS, white blood cell count, CRP, albumin, diabetes were adopted as confounding factors in the development of acute pneumonia. Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant differences between these two groups in the following four items: CRP, white blood cell count, JCS, and blood pressure classification on admission. After adjustment of these confounding factors, the incidence of acute pneumonia in the blood pressure groups other than serious hypertension group was set as 1, and the odds ratio of pneumonia onset in serious hypertension group was revealed to be 5.54, with the 95% confidence interval of 1.49 - 20.6.

Conclusions: We found that serious hypertension on admission is a risk factor for the development of acute pneumonia in elderly patients with cerebral hemorrhage who are in the acute phase.




J Clin Med Res. 2020;12(11):693-698
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4330

Keywords


Elderly; Cerebral hemorrhage; Blood pressure on admission; Acute pneumonia

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