Seroepidemiology of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnant Women in the Central Mexican City of Aguascalientes

Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Maria del Carmen Terrones-Saldivar, Jesus Hernandez-Tinoco, Maria Daniela Enriqueta Munoz-Terrones, Roberto Oswaldo Gallegos-Gonzalez, Luis Francisco Sanchez-Anguiano, Martha Elena Reyes-Robles, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido

Abstract


Background: Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy may lead to congenital disease. Very little is known about the seroepidemiology of CMV infection in pregnant women in Mexico. We sought to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of CMV infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico.

Methods: Through a cross-sectional study design, 289 pregnant women were examined for anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association between CMV infection and the characteristics of the pregnant women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Anti-CMV IgG antibodies were detected in 259 (89.6%) of the 289 pregnant women studied. None of the 289 pregnant women were positive for anti-CMV IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of CMV infection was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in pregnant women with reflex impairment (5/8: 62.5%) than in those without this clinical feature (246/272: 90.4%). Seroprevalence of CMV infection was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in pregnant women with 2 - 9 pregnancies (140/150: 93.3%) than in those with only one pregnancy (119/139: 86.2%). Logistic regression analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that seropositivity to CMV was associated with contact with children (odds ratio (OR) = 3.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17 - 10.84; P = 0.02), whereas high (> 150 AU/mL) anti-CMV antibody levels were negatively associated with washing hands before eating (OR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.63; P = 0.007).

Conclusions: We found a high endemicity of CMV infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Factors associated with CMV infection found in this study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against CMV exposure in pregnant women.




J Clin Med Res. 2018;10(4):337-344
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3358w


Keywords


Cross-sectional study; Seroprevalence; Cytomegalovirus; Infection; Pregnant women; Epidemiology; Mexico

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