Multiplexed Microsphere Suspension-Array Assay for Urine Mitochondrial DNA Typing by C-Stretch Length in Hypervariable Regions

Kimiko Aoki, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Takashi Kawahara


Background: The standard method for personal identification and verification of urine samples in doping control is short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using nuclear DNA (nDNA). The DNA concentration of urine is very low and decreases under most conditions used for sample storage; therefore, the amount of DNA from cryopreserved urine samples may be insufficient for STR analysis. We aimed to establish a multiplexed assay for urine mitochondrial DNA typing containing only trace amounts of DNA, particularly for Japanese populations.

Methods: A multiplexed suspension-array assay using oligo-tagged microspheres (Luminex MagPlex-TAG) was developed to measure C-stretch length in hypervariable region 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2), five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and one polymorphic indel. Based on these SNPs and the indel, the Japanese population can be classified into five major haplogroups (D4, B, M7a, A, D5). The assay was applied to DNA samples from urine cryopreserved for 1 - 1.5 years (n = 63) and fresh blood (n = 150).

Results: The assay with blood DNA enabled Japanese subjects to be categorized into 62 types, exhibiting a discriminatory power of 0.960. The detection limit for cryopreserved urine was 0.005 ng of nDNA. Profiling of blood and urine pairs revealed that 5 of 63 pairs showed different C-stretch patterns in HV1 or HV2.

Conclusions: The assay described here yields valuable information in terms of the verification of urine sample sources employing only trace amounts of recovered DNA. However, blood cannot be used as a reference sample.

J Clin Med Res. 2018;10(7):552-561


Suspension-array assay; MagPlex-TAG microspheres; Mitochondrial DNA; C-stretch length; Hypervariable region; Urine sample

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