Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, ISSN 1918-3003 print, 1918-3011 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Clin Med Res and Elmer Press Inc
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Volume 15, Number 1, January 2023, pages 1-9

Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Individuals: A Current Review of Evaluation, Screening and Prevention


Table 1. Comparison of AHA’s 14-Point Element Questionnaire for Preparticipation of Cardiovascular Screening of Athletes [50] and Modified Four Questions by the AAP Policy Statement [49]
AHA 14 pointsModified four points
AAP: American Academy of Pediatrics; AHA: American Heart Association; CPVT: catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; DCM: dilated cardiomyopathy; HCM: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; LQTS: long QT syndrome; SIDS: sudden infant death syndrome.
Personal history1. Have you ever fainted, passed out, or had an unexplained seizure suddenly and without warning, especially during exercise or in response to sudden loud noises, such as doorbells, alarm clocks, and ringing telephones?
1. History of chest pain/discomfort/tightness on exertion?
2. History of unexplained syncope?
3. History of excessive and unexplained dyspnea or palpitations associated with exertion
2. Have you ever experienced breathlessness or chest pain while exercise?
4. Prior history of heart murmur on examination
3. Has anyone in your immediate family or more distant relatives (aunts, uncles, cousins) passed away suddenly or unexpectedly before the age of 50 due to cardiac issues? This includes unexpected drownings, unexplained auto crashes in which the relative was the driver, or SIDS?
5. History of increased blood pressure
6. Any prior restriction on sports activity
7. Were you ever ordered heart disease investigations by a physician?
Family history
8. Early death of > 1 relative before the age of 50 years due to heart disease4. Is there anyone in your family under the age of 50 who has a pacemaker or implantable defibrillator, or to anyone with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, Marfan syndrome, LQTS, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, or CPVT?
9. Close relative of < 50 years with heart disease
10. Family history HCM or DCM, LQTS or other channelopathies, Marfan syndrome, symptomatic arrhythmias or any other known genetic cardiac condition
Physical examination
11. Audible heart murmur
12. Check for femoral pulses
13. Marfan syndrome findings (Kyphoscoliosis, high arch palate, pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, arm span > height, hyperlaxity, myopia, mitral valve prolapse, aortic insufficiency, systemic arterial hypertension)
14. Brachial artery pressure