Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, ISSN 1918-3003 print, 1918-3011 online, Open Access |

Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Clin Med Res and Elmer Press Inc |

Journal website http://www.jocmr.org |

Original Article

Volume 11, Number 6, June 2019, pages 428-434

**Oral Supplementation Using Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Whey Protein Improves Whole Body Fat-Free Mass in Men After Resistance Training**

Figures

Tables

WP group | WP + GABA group | ANOVA | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Baseline | 12 weeks | Baseline | 12 weeks | ||

Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. WP: whey protein; WP + GABA: whey protein + gamma-aminobutyric acid; ANOVA: analysis of variance; G: group effect; T: time effect; G × T: group × time effect. | |||||

Energy intake (kcal/day) | 2,153 ± 1,034 | 2,105 ± 723 | 1,681 ± 585 | 1,761 ± 395 | G: P = 0.186, T: P = 0.907, G × T: P = 0.651 |

Protein intake (g/day) | 69 ± 24 | 75 ± 24 | 61 ± 26 | 62 ± 20 | G: P = 0.302, T: P = 0.431, G × T: P = 0.488 |

Carbohydrate intake (g/day) | 303 ± 170 | 299 ± 125 | 219 ± 79 | 218 ± 58 | G: P = 0.103, T: P = 0.913, G × T: P = 0.925 |

Fat intake (g/day) | 53 ± 19 | 54 ± 18 | 49 ± 21 | 50 ± 15 | G: P = 0.608, T: P = 0.809, G × T: P = 0.957 |

WP group | WP + GABA group | ANOVA | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Baseline | 12 weeks | Baseline | 12 weeks | ||

Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. WP: whey protein; WP + GABA: whey protein + gamma-aminobutyric acid; ANOVA: analysis of variance; G: group effect; T: time effect; G × T: group × time effect. | |||||

Leg press (kg) | 127 ± 31 | 202 ± 53 | 133 ± 38 | 230 ± 74 | G: P = 0.414, T: P = 0.000, G × T: P = 0.404 |

Leg extension (kg) | 64 ± 17 | 91 ± 33 | 64 ± 13 | 91 ± 15 | G: P = 0.968, T: P = 0.000, G × T: P = 0.947 |

Leg curl (kg) | 53 ± 14 | 77 ± 22 | 55 ± 11 | 78 ± 19 | G: P = 0.866, T: P = 0.000, G × T: P = 0.929 |

Chest press (kg) | 52 ± 11 | 65 ± 13 | 63 ± 14 | 78 ± 16 | G: P = 0.058, T: P = 0.000, G × T: P = 0.727 |

Pull down (kg) | 59 ± 15 | 73 ± 15 | 65 ± 15 | 78 ± 15 | G: P = 0.411, T: P = 0.000, G × T: P = 0.876 |

WP group | WP + GABA group | ANOVA | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Baseline | 12 weeks | Baseline | 12 weeks | ||

Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. WP: whey protein; WP + GABA: whey protein + gamma-aminobutyric acid; BMI: body mass index; ANOVA: analysis of variance; G: group effect; T: time effect; G × T: group × time effect. | |||||

Weight (kg) | 70.5 ± 8.6 | 70.8 ± 9.0 | 70.5 ± 8.9 | 71.7 ± 10.4 | G: P = 0.917, T: P = 0.079, G × T: P = 0.252 |

Fat mass (kg) | 16.8 ± 4.9 | 16.9 ± 5.4 | 16.4 ± 5.6 | 16.3 ± 6.3 | G: P = 0.846, T: P = 0.957, G × T: P = 0.773 |

BMI (kg/m^{2}) | 23.3 ± 2.2 | 23.4 ± 2.3 | 24.2 ± 3.6 | 24.6 ± 4.1 | G: P = 0.501, T: P = 0.089, G × T: P = 0.247 |

Whole body fat-free mass (kg) | 50.9 ± 4.7 | 51.0 ± 4.6 | 51.2 ± 5.4 | 52.5 ± 6.2 | G: P = 0.714, T: P = 0.011, G × T: P = 0.037 |

Arm and leg lean mass (kg) | 23.0 ± 2.3 | 23.6 ± 2.7 | 23.4 ± 2.8 | 24.2 ± 2.9 | G: P = 0.695, T: P = 0.001, G × T: P = 0.584 |